# Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus FM 03

Sci-tech Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus Model FM 03 is a bench top unit and has been designed to demonstrate the Bernoulli’s Theorem. The apparatus consists of a transparent venturi tube. Wall pressure tapings are provided along the converging and diverging portions of the venturi to measure the static pressure distribution. Pitot tubes are provided to along the centre line of the venturi. Static pressures are measured using multi-tube manometer having a manifold with an air bleed valve. Manometer can be pressurized by a hand pump. The characteristics of the flow in both convergent and divergent portions of the venturi can be studied. This apparatus can also be used to conduct laboratory experiments to (a) demonstrate the continuity equation and (b) determine the co-efficient of discharge of venturi as a flow measurement device. Water is supplied by a hose connection at the inlet and controlled by a valve at the outlet of the venturi.

 Size: 50cm x 40cm x 60cm (LxWxH)
 Weight: 25 kg

### Item Description

Sci-tech Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus Model FM 03 is an important experimental set-up for any Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory of an educational institutions.

The Bernoulli’s Theorem states that the sum of pressure head, velocity head and the potential head is constant along a streamline for a steady, in viscid and incompressible flow of fluid. The Sci-tech Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus Model FM 03 is a bench top unit and has been designed to demonstrate the Bernoulli’s Theorem. The apparatus consists of a transparent venturi tube. Wall pressure tapings are provided along the converging and diverging portions of the venturi to measure the static pressure distribution. Pitot tubes are provided to along the centre line of the venturi. Static pressures are measured using multi-tube manometer having a manifold with an air bleed valve. Manometer can be pressurized by a hand pump. The characteristics of the flow in both convergent and divergent portions of the venturi can be studied. This apparatus can also be used to conduct laboratory experiments to (a) demonstrate the continuity equation and (b) determine the co-efficient of discharge of venturi as a flow measurement device. Water is supplied by a hose connection at the inlet and controlled by a valve at the outlet of the venturi. The complete unit is manufactured from corrosion resistant materials. The FM 100F Hydraulic Bench or any other standard hydraulic bench models can be used to supply water.

Options

‘Sci-Cal’ Computer based learning software can be offered to enable students understand and conduct experiments, tabulate results and plot graphs.

### Technical Specifications

Important Features and Specifications:

1. Venturi tube, transparent, made of clear Acrylic and having convergent and divergent portions, throat diameter: 16.0mm, maximum diameter: 26mm, upstream taper: 140, downstream taper: 210.
2. No. of static pressure taps: 7.
3. No. of Pitot tubes: 7.
4. Multi-tube manometer, 0-300 mm water column, No. of tubes: 11.
5. Optional ‘Sci-tech’ Hydraulic Bench Model FM 100F

Options:

• A self contained unit of Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus mounted on a mobile platform with a flow controlled closed circuit water circulation unit consisting of centrifugal pump, flow meter, corrosion resistant sheet metal measuring tank and a sump tank will be supplied on request.
• ‘Sci-cal’ Software & Interface: ‘Sci-tech’ software, interface & related sensors enable plotting of require graphs through the formulae integrated into software. The students can carry out experiments and see graphs and results in ‘Labview’.

Depending on the measurement method, the measured values can be read off the analogue manometer or digital displays. The measured values are transmitted directly to a PC via USB. The data acquisition software is included.

### Demonstration Apparatus:

1. Familiarization with static and total pressure measurements.
2. Demonstration of continuity equation.
3. Demonstration of Bernoulli’s theorem.
4. Measurement and display of static pressure variation along the venturi at different flow rates.
5. Investigation of static pressure, flow velocity and total pressure variation along the venturi.
6. Determination of co-efficient of discharge of the venturi.
7. Study of venturi tube as a flow measurement device.

### Measurements:

1. Static pressures along the venturi.
2. Total pressures along the venturi.
3. Volume flow rate from Hydraulic Bench or direct measurements.

(Including the Hydraulic Bench) Height: 1.35m, Width: 0.75m, Length: 1.4m.

The manual describing the theoretical and practical aspects of the apparatus, operation, analysis of
results, and sample of results will be supplied with the equipment.

List of Experiments

Following is the list of experiments that can be carried out using the Bernoulli’s Theorem

Demonstration Apparatus:

1. Familiarization with static and total pressure measurements.
2. Demonstration of continuity equation.
3. Demonstration of Bernoulli’s theorem.
4. Measurement and display of static pressure variation along the venturi at different flow rates.
5. Investigation of static pressure, flow velocity and total pressure variation along the venturi.
6. Determination of co-efficient of discharge of the venturi.
7. Study of venturi tube as a flow measurement device.

Measurements:

1. Static pressures along the venturi.
2. Total pressures along the venturi.
3. Volume flow rate from Hydraulic Bench or direct measurements.

FM 03