# Saturation Vapour Pressure Apparatus Model TH 096

Sci-tech Saturation Vapour Pressure Apparatus Model TH 096 has been designed to introduce students to how the temperature of water behaves at its boiling point with variation in the absolute pressure. Saturation curves can be obtained by the student and compared with published steam tables. The quality of steam exiting the apparatus can be determined using a throttling calorimeter connected at the point of discharge.

### Item Description

➤ Measurement of the relationship between temperature and pressure of the saturated vapour in the loop

➤ Convenient control of heat input to the boiler using variable power control

➤ Sight glass in the boiler allows observation of the boiling patterns in the water

➤ Safe operation with pressure relief valve and permanent indication of system pressure

➤ Pressure and temperatures measured can be logged using a PC (optional teaching software available)

Experimental Capabilities

Teaching exercises will enable students to become familiar with the following topics:

Saturation Loop:

➤ observation of the patterns of boiling at the surface of the water

➤ measurement of the temperature of saturated steam over the range of pressures 0 to 7 bar

gauge and comparison of the saturation curves obtained with those published in steam tables.

➤ the concept of a saturation line

➤ the describing equation and linearization

➤ gauge and absolute pressures

➤ temperature scales

➤ the characteristic behavior of a two phase fluid

➤ the effect of rate of response on the accuracy of measurement

Throttling Calorimeter:

➤ determination of the condition of the wet steam (quality of the steam) produced by the

Saturation Pressure Apparatus at different operating pressures.

➤ use of the steady flow energy equation

➤ the two property rule

➤ use of steam tables

➤ the difference in enthalpy between phases – enthalpy of vaporization

### Technical Specifications

• A bench top unit comprising a boiler vessel and pipe loop with a pressure relief valve to limit the operating pressure to 8 bar gauge. A sight glass on the front of the boiler allows the boiling patterns to be observed and a Bourdon type gauge indicates the pressure in the apparatus at all times for safe operation.
• A throttling calorimeter mounted adjacent to the pipe loop allows the condition of the saturated steam to be determined by measuring the temperature of the steam following throttling to atmospheric pressure. Temperatures in the pipe loop and inside the throttling calorimeter are measured using PRT sensors and pressure in the loop is measured using an electronic pressure sensor.
• An electrical console houses the necessary electronics with current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. A digital meter with selector switch displays all sensor measurements. Corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC. An optional interface device and educational software package is available.
• The boiler is heated by a pair of 500 W electric heating elements with variable power control and over-temperature protection.

●          A comprehensive instruction manual is included with a range of fully detailed laboratory                 teaching exercises